If you looked in a financial glossary, it would probably define a share as a "certificate
representing one unit of ownership in a company" which is accurate, but not very
informative. So what does investing in shares mean? To put it simply, you became
a part owner of every company you buy shares in.
It wouldn't be unusual if a share gave you ownership of a millionth of a company
or less, but this small stake could entitle you to a share in the profits and a
say in how the company is run.
If you invest in a company that does well, it's likely other people will want to
invest in that company too. As there are a fixed number of shares available, the
law of supply and demand comes into play and the share price is likely to rise,
increasing the value of your holding.